The term periodontology indicates that branch of dentistry that studies the tissues of the periodontium and related diseases.


The periodontium is made up of soft tissues, i.e. the periodontal ligament and gum, and hard tissues, i.e. root cement and alveolar bone, which surround the tooth and serve to ensure its stability in the dental arch. The dentist who is able to ascertain and treat the periodontium is called a periodontist.

Periodontal diseases or periodontal diseases are called and all the diseases that affect the periodontium: periodontitis and gingivitis.

Periodontal disease is also known as “pyorrhea”.

The main cause of periodontitis is poor oral hygiene, because the level of bacterial plaque increases and this causes gingival inflammation to appear, which then worsens to affect the periodontium. Other factors that favor the onset of this disease are smoking, uncompensated diabetes, stress, pregnancy and heredity.

This pathology is infectious because the cause is due to bacterial plaque. Periodontology is a multifactorial disease, because it is given by a different series of factors (smoking, diabetes, stress, pregnancy and heredity), and a specific site, because every single tooth can be affected in a different way.



Periodontal disease occurs when one or more constituents of the periodontium no longer perform their function of supporting the teeth, because they are colonized by several bacterial species. All this leads to the mobility of the affected teeth and gingival recessions, that is, lowering of the gum and neoformations of periodontal pockets. It is estimated that in Italy there are about 10 million people with pyorrhea.

Pyorrhea usually occurs in the form of swelling, redness and bleeding of the gums, which appears during daily brushing or when eating solid foods. The constant presence of bad breath and increased sensitivity to the teeth and gums when chewing or brushing are the main warning signs.

When the disease is in its initial stage it heals after a subgingival curettage cycle, which must be maintained by a correct and periodic daily oral hygiene.

When the disease presented is in an advanced stage, there are a series of surgical procedures designed to slow the progress of the

pathology trying to reduce periodontal pockets and giving greater stability to the teeth.


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